Ethiopia owes its rich biodiversity to the combination of a tropical location and an altitudinal span ranging from 4,533 metres above sea level to 116 metres below sea level. The country is known for its unusually high level of endemism i.e. plant and animal species found nowhere else in the world. Among vertebrates alone, at least 140 species are unique to Ethiopia, including more than 40 mammals and 18 birds.
The varied flora embraces the world’s most extensive tracts of Afro-alpine moorland, along with a varied mix of forest, savannah, desert, and cultivation.
Ethiopia provides refuge to a typical Afro-tropical fauna, ranging from parrots and pelicans to lions and crocodiles, but it is most notable perhaps for endemic species such as the Ethiopian wolf, gelada baboon, and Prince Ruspoli’s turaco.